კონფერენციები

 

  1. Psychology in 21st century, Open Minds, Societies and Word, 19-24 July, 2020 +

Abstract – Resilience and self-esteem among street-connected youth

Shorena Sadzaglishvili, PhD, MSW, Teona Gotsiridze, MSW, Ketevan Lekeshvili, MSW

Street-connected youth are subject to violence from caretakers, fellow street youth, police, and experience all forms of exploitation and abuse. Because of the high vulnerability of their lives and restricted human and material resources, it is assumed that they lack resilience. The present cross-sectional research aimed to study resilience and self-esteem among 300 street-connected youth living in 3 big cities of Georgia  (46% female; M=14.55 years; SD=2.74). Youth were eligible for the study if they were aged 10-19 and spent most of their time living or working on the street. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale was adapted to measure resilience and a self –esteem questionnaire including 3 likert style questions was developed to measure self-esteem. Traumatic experience was measured using adapted version of Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) Questionnaire for Street Connected Youth (CDCP, 2014). The adapted ACE measured 3 personal (physical abuse, verbal abuse, sexual abuse) and 2 related to other family members’ abuse (a parent who’s an alcoholic and a family member in jail). Survey data were analyzed in SPSS 22.

The study showed that almost 50% of youth are highly resilient (M=10.25, SD=1.7, Max 12, min – 5). The youth who experience higher ACE score (traumatic experience) are less resilient (Spearman’s rho =-.127, p=0,03). Resilience and self-esteem was not associated with youth’s gender, ethnicity, age, religiosity and their involvement in school, day or night centers. Self-esteem was negatively correlated with the age when street youth started living and working in the street  (Spearman’s rho =-.209, p=0). Earlier the child is in the street, higher his/her self-esteem scored. A negative correlation implies that those who started at a younger age are more resilient than those who started at an older age, presumably having a harder transition to it. The findings transformed the existing conceptualization of street-connected youth as vulnerable. Further in-depth study is needed to reveal factors affecting development of resilience and self-esteem among street-connected youth.

  1. 10TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE FOR SOCIAL WORK RESEARCH 2021, May, 5-7

 https://www.ecswr2020.org/en/

Abstract – Ethical Considerations for Social Work Research with Street-connected children

Shorena Sadzaglishvili, PhD, MSW, Teona Gotsiridze, MSW, Ketevan Lekeshvili, MSW, Alida Bouris, PhD, MSW and Darejan Javakhishvili, PhD.

The aim of this presentation is to impose solutions to the ethical problems that derive in social work research involving street connected children. Many researchers reported complex issues regarding obtaining informed consents from the minors without parental care[1]. The main concern is how to balance the protection of children while progressing their participation in research. Based on the core principals – Respect, Benefit and Justice highlighted by Ethical Research Involving Children (ERIC), the present research “HIV prevention Among Street Connected Youth” elaborated methodological considerations for conducting ethical research for the most vulnerable children. The study was funded by the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia (FR 17_31).

The main issues discussed are as follows: (1) inappropriateness of obtaining parental/caregivers consent when children living on the streets; (2) age relevance for asking the most sensitive questions concerning sexuality and drug use; (3) the ways for protection confidentiality and privacy for the sexually abused and vulnerable children participating; (4) incentives for engagement of the street connected youth to participate in research; (5) ways of obtaining trust from street connected children to be recruited for the study; (6) using substitute mechanism such as Competence Assessment Tool for measuring children’s competence to consent to research;

For the present study, 10 -19 years old children were chosen to participate in the research. In contrast to the conventional approach, the persons below 16 years did participate in the study without parental permission. In fact, many street connected children are victims of abuse by their parents and relatives and work for them in patron-client-like arrangements. Thus, potential benefit was higher than negative consequence by participating without parental permission. However, several substitute mechanisms were put in place for protecting underage children. In particular, children were informed explicitly that participation was voluntary, they could pull out without risk of sanction and their anonymity and confidentiality was guaranteed. However, anonymity did not prevent the reporting of cases of child abuse in line with the referral mechanism established for the current study. Children completed informed consent forms documenting their willingness to participate. The MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR)[2] was used for measuring children’s competence to consent to research study. Only children who demonstrated competence participated. All consent forms were written at a 2nd grade reading level. Project staff received intensive training on how to obtain informed consent and administer surveys when there is low or no literacy. Children were given food vouchers of Wendy’s as incentives.

Finally, the study highlighted critical importance of providing research with street connected under aged children with new approach that supports the best interests of children in the absence of parental support and concern for their welfare.

Key words: ethical research, street connected children, confidentiality and anonymity, Competence Assessment Tool, informed consent

  1. The IASYM European Biennial Conference 2020: “Cultivating Youth Spirituality: Faith, Nurturing and Youth Ministry” Helsinki, Finland, 15-18 April 2020+.

Shorena Sadzaglishvili, PhD, MSW, Teona Gotsiridze, MSW, Ketevan Lekishvili, MSW

Street-connected youth are vulnerable to violence from caretakers, fellow street youth, police, and experience all forms of exploitation and abuse. The present study conducted structural interviews with N=80 street-connected youth (43.8% female; 56.3% male. M=13.56. Median= 13.50 years; SD=2.44) recruited from 10 social service centers in two cities located in Georgia in 2018. Trained interviewers administered a close-ended survey on demographics, sexual behavior history and traumatic experience. Traumatic experience was measured using adapted version of Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) Questionnaire for Street Connected Youth (CDCP, 2014). The adapted ACE measured 3 personal (physical abuse, verbal abuse, sexual abuse) and 2 related to other family members’ abuse: a parent who’s an alcoholic and a family member in jail. Survey data were analyzed in SPSS 22. The study showed that ACE among the studied street connected youth is very common (M=1.18, SD=1.27, Skewness =0.991, Kurtosis =0.198 Minimum Score=0 and Maximum=5) and is not correlated with children’s gender, ethnicity or age. However, ACE score is associated with a sexual contact children ever had. Children with higher ACE more likely to engage in sexual relationships (Pearson Chi-Square= 19.795, p<0.001). The study was funded by the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia (FR 17_31).

  1. ონლაინ კონფერენცია – „ სოციალური მუშაობა-მეცნიერება სოციალური ცვლილებებისთვის“

შორენა საძაგლიშვილი, PhD, MSW, თეონა გოცირიძე, MSW, ქეთევან ლეკიშვილი, MSW,

ქუჩათან დაკავშირებულ ახალგაზრდებთან კვლევის ეთიკური საკითხები

https://conferencegasw.wixsite.com/gasw

  1. SSWR 2020 Annual Conference “Reducing Racial and Economic Inequality”. January 15-19, 2020, in Washington, DC

https://sswr.confex.com/sswr/2020/webprogram/Session11216.html

https://sswr.confex.com/sswr/2020/webprogram/Paper38117.html

Abstract – Gender Differences in Relationship Behavioral Expectations with Romantic Partners and Exchange-Sex Partners: Findings from a Mixed-Methods Study with Street-Connected Youth in the Republic of Georgia

Shorena Sadzaglishvili, PhD, MSW, Teona Gotsiridze, MSW, Ketevan Lekeshvili, MSW, and Alida Bouris, PhD, MSW

Background and purpose: Street-connected youth, i.e., young people aged 10-19 who spend most of their time living and/or working on the street, are highly vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Whereas prior research has documented high rates of condomless sex and exchange-sex among street-connected youth, less research has examined youth’s attitudes, beliefs, and expectancies for both romantic and exchange-sex relationships. The present study sought to address this gap by examining how street-connected youth in the Republic of Georgia view both romantic and exchange-sex relationships. Given prior research documenting gendered vulnerability to HIV, we also examined gender differences in how youth view each relationship type. The study was funded by the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia (FR 17_31).

Methods: The present study conducted mixed-methods interviews with N=20 street-connected youth (50% female; M=13.95 years; SD=2.11) recruited from 10 social service centers in two cities. Youth were eligible if they were aged 10-19 and spent most of their time living or working on the street. Trained interviewers administered a close-ended survey on demographics, sexual behavior history and relationship behavior expectations for romantic and exchange-sex partners. Qualitative interviews explored youth’s attitudes, beliefs, and expectancies about romantic and exchange-sex relationships. Survey data was analyzed in SPSS 22. Gender differences in relationship expectations were calculated using Chi-square and Fisher’s exact-tests, with a Holm-modified Bonferroni to control for experimentwise-error rates and a Cramer’s phi (φc) to test the strength of significant associations. Qualitative data was audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by three independent coders. All data was collected in Georgian and translated to English for linguistic and cultural equivalence.

Results: Forty-percent of youth had ever had sex and 15% reported exchange-sex. Among sexually active youth, condom use at last sex was low for oral (33.3%), vaginal (50%) and anal (20%) sex. There were no gender differences in relationship behavior expectations with a romantic partner. However, there were significant differences for exchange-sex partners. A higher proportion of boys than girls endorsed talking with (80% vs. 20%; p=.023; φc=.60) and saying I love you to (70% vs. 0%; p=.003; φc=.73) an exchange-sex partner, while a higher proportion of girls than boys endorsed using drugs (90% vs. 20%, p=.005; φc=.70) and having condomless vaginal sex (80% vs. 20%, p=.023; φc=.60) with an exchange-sex partner. Qualitative results contextualized these differences, with girls describing heightened states of vulnerability to sex, exchange-sex, and sexual violence, and little power in either romantic or exchange-sex relationships. Conversely, boys described a social environment where they had easy access to romantic and exchange-sex partners and expected to have greater power in these relationships.

Conclusions and implications: Findings point to clear gender differences in how street-connected youth view romantic and exchange-sex relationships, with girls having less social and economic power to refuse sex in either romantic or exchange-sex relationships. Programming to prevent HIV/AIDS among street-connected youth needs to develop gender-responsive content that addresses unequal power between boys and girls. This work should specifically target boys to foster attitudes and behaviors that promote joint-decision making in sexual relationships with female partners.

  1. The Centre for Family Research of the Nicolaus Copernicus University
    in Torun, invites you to the 2nd International Scientific Conference
    of Research on Family Services, Torun on 23rd to
    25th March, 2020.

Abstract – Ethical Considerations for Social Work Research with Vulnerable Children and their Families

Shorena Sadzaglishvili, PhD, MSW, Teona Gotsiridze, MSW, Ketevan Lekeshvili, MSW

The aim of this presentation is to impose solutions to the ethical dilemmas that derive in social work research involving vulnerable children. The main concern is how to balance the protection of children while progressing their participation. Based on the core principals – Respect, Benefit and Justice highlighted by Ethical Research Involving Children, the present research elaborated methodological considerations for conducting ethical research for the most vulnerable children – street connected children. The study was funded by the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia (FR 17_31).

10 -18 years old street connected children (N=300) were chosen to participate in the quantitative research. Many street connected children are victims of abuse by their parents and work for them in patron-client-like arrangements. Potential benefit is higher than negative consequence by participating without parental permission. However, several substitute mechanisms were put in place for protecting underage children. In particular, children were informed explicitly that participation was voluntary, they could pull out without risk of sanction and their anonymity and confidentiality was guaranteed. However, anonymity did not prevent the reporting of cases of child abuse in line with the referral mechanism established for the current study. Children completed informed consent forms documenting their willingness to participate. The MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research was used for measuring children’s competence to consent to research study. Only children with competence participated.

Finally, the study highlighted critical importance of providing research with vulnerable children considering the best interests of children in the absence of parental care.

  1. 7th international EFCAP congress, 13 to 15 May 2020 in Eindhoven, The Netherlands

Shorena Sadzaglishvili, PhD, MSW, Teona Gotsiridze, MSW, Ketevan Lekishvili, MSW

Street-connected youth are vulnerable to violence from caretakers, fellow street youth, police, and experience all forms of exploitation and abuse. The present study conducted structural interviews with N=80 street-connected youth (43.8% female; 56.3% male. M=13.56. Median= 13.50 years; SD=2.44) recruited from 10 social service centers in two cities located in Georgia in 2018. Trained interviewers administered a close-ended survey on demographics, detention history and traumatic experience. Traumatic experience was measured using adapted version of Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) Questionnaire for Street Connected Youth (CDCP, 2014). The adapted ACE measured 3 personal (physical abuse, verbal abuse, sexual abuse) and 2 related to other family members’ abuse: a parent who’s an alcoholic and a family member in jail. Survey data were analyzed in SPSS 22. The study showed that youth’s history of detention is correlated with youth’s ACE. In particular, youth with the detention past showed higher ACE score compared to the youth who did not have history of detention (Mann-Whitney, Z=-2.23, p=0.026). History of detention was not associated with the age of the child, however it was correlated with youth’s gender. Male youth are more likely to be arrested in the jail or detention centers (Pearson Chi-Square= 6.198, p=0.012). The study was funded by the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia (FR 17_31).

[1] Graham, A., Powell, M., Taylor, N., Anderson, D. & Fitzgerald, R. (2013). Ethical Research Involving Children. Florence: UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti.

[2] Hein IM, Troost PW, Lindeboom R, Benninga MA, Zwaan CM, van Goudoever JB, Lindauer RJL. Accuracy of the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR) for Measuring  Children’s Competence to Consent to Clinical Research. JAMA Pediotr. 2014; 168(12): 1147-1153